Explosive munition, not subject to centrifugal forces and with a nearly vertical angle of descent delivered from an aircraft.
A complete device (e.g. missile, shell, mine, demolition store etc.) charged with explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics, initiating composition or nuclear, biological or chemical material for use in connection with offence, or defence, or training, or non-operational purposes, including those parts of weapons systems containing explosives.
An attack on an area rather than on one specific target by one or a number of weapons firing several projectiles into that area. Bombing of a group of targets constituting an area rather than a pinpoint target.
The magnitude sum of primary (i.e. blast, heat, fragmentation) and secondary (i.e. fragmentation, debris, burns, toxicity) explosive weapon effects on humans, including structural damage and collapse, radiating from the impact location(s) of one or more munitions.
To make a fuzing system ready for functioning by removal of all the safety constraints, thus permitting the munition to function on receipt of a specified firing stimulus.
A gun of a calibre greater than 57 mm, which is not man-portable, is designed for indirect fire and capable of hitting targets at a considerable range. Characterised by a heavy barrel, generally several metres long and most commonly fitted to a self-propelled vehicle or a towed trailer. Modern artillery guns feature recoil mechanisms, and many are capable of being used in the direct fire role. Includes ‘howitzers’, which are generally understood to be comparatively short-range artillery guns firing a heavy projectile at a relatively low muzzle velocity.
Medium and large-calibre munitions for artillery weapons, such as guns, howitzers, cannons, missile and rocket launchers, that are primarily designed to fire indirectly at targets.
Any location where groups of people gather on a regular basis for various commercial, social, educational, religious, administrative or commuting purposes.
For the purposes of CEW, barrage refers to an explosive weapon attack of a minimum of 8 projectiles of the same type impacting one (target) area. For example, 4 guns firing 2 rounds each.
Fire, which is designed to fill a volume of space or area rather than aimed specifically at a given target.
The assessment of effects resulting from the application of military action, either lethal or non-lethal, against a military objective.
A liquid propellant in the form of two substances, a fuel and an oxidizer; they are stored separately and brought together when their mutual chemical reaction is required to produce thrust.
A destructive wave of gases or air produced in the surrounding atmosphere by a detonation. The blast includes a shock front, high pressure behind the shock front and a rarefaction following the high pressure.
A prepared explosive store, which though initiated, has failed to arm as intended or to explode after being armed; failing to function correctly after initiation, becoming unexploded ordnance (UXO).
Explosive munition, not subject to centrifugal forces and with a nearly vertical angle of descent, usually delivered from an aircraft or mortar.
The calibre designation of a munition reflects the nominal projectile diameter, which is most often determined based on the bore of a weapon, as measured across the features of the weapon’s rifling.
The calibre can be determined from the diameter of the lands (X), the diameter of the grooves (Y), or the average diameter of both (X+Y divided by 2); alternatively, it can correspond with an arbitrary figure, which is provided by the cartridge or weapon designer. Some calibres (typically those using imperial measurements) are commonly measured between the grooves, instead of being based on the diameter of the lands of the barrel’s rifling, although this is not always the case. In smoothbore weapons, the calibre may be determined by measuring the diameter of the projectile, the barrel or may be an arbitrary measurement. The term ‘calibre’ is sometimes applied to measurements of munitions other than projectiles, such as rockets and missiles. In these cases, it is generally equivalent to the outer diameter of the body at its widest or average point.
A human settlement with a name, built-up area and an established community. The categorisation in terms depends on the size and density of the population as well as sum of housing and economic infrastructure, and varies from region to region. More specifically:
City is a large town; an inhabited place with greater size, population, administration or importance than a town.
Town has defined boundaries and local governance, and is larger than a village and generally smaller than a city, with its own business or shopping area.
Village is a group of houses and associated buildings, generally larger than a hamlet and smaller than a town, situated in a rural area.
Hamlet is a small settlement, generally smaller than a village and without a place of worship.
Containers designed to disperse or release multiple submunitions. Note: Generally only applied to weapons dispersing explosive submunitions.
Inadvertent casualties and destruction in civilian areas caused by military operations.
Any concentration of civilians be it permanent or temporary, such as in inhabited parts of cities, or inhabited towns or villages, or as in camps or columns of refugees or evacuees, or groups of nomads.
A weapon, which is neither nuclear, biological nor chemical.
Any portion of the natural ground or of a structure or material (not part of the functioning explosive weapon) that is propelled from the site of an explosion. Also known as projections.
A rapid chemical reaction in which the output of heat is sufficient to enable the reaction to proceed and be accelerated without input of heat from another source. Deflagration is a surface phenomenon with the reaction products flowing away from the unreacted material to the surface at subsonic velocity. The effect of a deflagration under confinement is an explosion. Confinement of the reaction increases the pressure rate of reaction and temperature and may cause transition into a detonation.
The complete range of processes that render weapons, ammunition and explosives unfit for their originally intended purpose.
An exothermic reaction wave, which follows and also maintains, a supersonic shock front in an explosive.
A device containing a sensitive explosive intended to produce a detonation wave.
In a mass, all together, as a group: several weapons firing a number of munitions as a single group, near-simultaneously.
A nuclear, chemical or physical process leading to the sudden release of energy (and usually gases and heat) giving rise to external pressure waves.
Solid or liquid substance or mixture of substances, which by intrinsic chemical reaction is capable of producing an explosion. A substance or mixture of substances, which, under external influences, is capable of rapidly releasing energy in the form of gases and heat.
A bagged, wrapped or cased quantity of explosives without its own integral means of ignition. Secondary means of ignition may or may not be incorporated.
All munitions containing explosives. This includes bombs and warheads; guided and ballistic missiles; artillery, mortar, rocket and small arms ammunition; all mines, torpedoes and depth charges; pyrotechnics; clusters and dispensers; cartridge and propellant actuated devices; electro-explosive devices; clandestine and improvised explosive devices; and all similar or related items or components explosive in nature.
Unexploded ordnance (UXO) and abandoned explosive ordnance (AXO) that remain after the end of an armed conflict, military operation, on a range etc., including all munitions, mines and cluster munitions.
A substance or mixture of substances, which are capable by a chemical reaction in itself of producing gas at such a temperature and pressure and at such speed as to cause damage to surroundings or which is designed to produce an effect by heat, light, sound, gas or smoke or a combination of these as a result of non-detonating, self-sustaining exothermic chemical reactions.
Destructive effects radiating from the point of initiation of detonating ordnance and include blast overpressure, fragmentation, heat and light.
Destructive, immediate additional effects to the primary explosive weapon effects due to the interaction with structures and substances present in built and natural environments. Examples are secondary fragmentation generated by blast or primary fragmentation, fires caused by thermal output, the generation of toxic gases and hazardous chemicals, smoke, debris, etc.
Weapons and munitions that generally consist of a casing with a high explosive filling and whose destructive effects result mainly from the blast wave and fragmentation produced by detonation.
Refers to the use of an explosive weapon (primarily ones capable of wide area effects) in a hamlet, village, town or city where there are civilians and civilian infrastructure within the range of its primary and/or secondary effects.
Any solid material in contact with an explosive or surrounding it closely that is propelled from the site of an explosion and often splintered. It is mainly applied to the ordnance metal casing and other non-explosive components. Note: Secondary fragments may be glass, concrete, metal, wood, etc. from the environment affected by blast and primary fragmentation
In munitions and explosive terms: a simple burning fuse, e.g. safety fuse, fuse instantaneous.
Munition that is designed to be thrown by hand or to be launched from a rifle. Excludes rocket-propelled grenades (c.f. Rocket).
Guided missiles consist of propellant-type motors fitted with warheads containing high explosive or other active agent and equipped with electronic guidance devices.
Physical injury, death or damaging effects to the health of people, or damage to property or the environment.
Artillery weapon system (field gun, howitzer, cannon, mortar, rocket launcher), air-delivered bomb, a missile or a tank gun, which has a calibre of 100 mm and above and munition with explosive payload.
A substance or mixture of substances, which in their application as primary, booster or main charge in ammunition is required to detonate.
Debris or fragments at high velocity as the result of an explosion and that may have sufficient remaining energy to propagate the explosion of another source capable of explosion or deflagration.
Vulnerable buildings, facilities or groups of these where people are normally present in large numbers.
Capable of spontaneous ignition on contact with another specific substance.
A self-igniting bi-propellant in which fuel and oxidizer ignite on contact with each other.
The spontaneous ignition of two components, particularly relevant in the case of liquid bi-propellants.
A munition containing an incendiary substance, which may be a solid, liquid or gel; this includes white and red phosphorus, thermite, jellied fuel mixture, etc.
A munition that contains no explosive, pyrotechnic, lachrymatory, radioactive, chemical, biological or other toxic components or substances. This term is also used for the empty body of an item before being filled, or a rendered safe item.
A non-explosive filling used to replace explosives and enable operational items to be simulated for training and testing, and increasingly for operational purposes.
A building or structure occupied in whole or in part by people. Used synonymously with occupied building.
Ammunition containing chemical compounds that are designed to temporarily incapacitate by causing tears or inflammation of the eyes.
Any man-portable weapon designed for use by two or three persons serving as a crew (although some may be carried and used by a single person) that is designed to expel or launch a projectile by the action of an explosive charge and uses high explosive munitions. Includes hand-held under-barrel and mounted grenade launchers, portable anti-aircraft guns and missile systems, portable anti-tank guns and rocket and missile systems, recoilless rifles and mortars of a calibre of less than 100 mm, as well as their parts, components and high explosive munitions.
Any liquid that can be used for the chemical generation of gas at controlled rates and used for propulsion purposes.
A dedicated area, normally in or near a settlement, where stalls or shops are erected on at least one day per week and people can exchange or buy goods or services.
A place where people can go for assistance if they are wounded or ill. Can be anything from a marked out area with no structure, to a large hospital.
A geographically defined place where groups of people regularly meet, often for a common purpose or to assemble prior to travelling to another place.
In land mine warfare, an explosive munition designed to be placed under, on or near the ground or other surface area and to be actuated by the presence, proximity or contact of a person, land vehicle, aircraft or boat, including landing craft.
An armament store designed to be released from an aircraft or discharged from a gun or launcher towards a selected point usually to cause damage at that point. Note: The term is often used synonymously with guided missile.
Generally a smoothbore, muzzle-loading, indirect fire gun firing relatively low velocity munitions. Conventional mortars do not have recoil mechanisms, with the main recoil force being transmitted directly to the ground via the baseplate. Most mortars are restricted in elevation, and are only capable of firing at high-angle trajectories (above 45°), preventing use in the direct fire support role.
A rocket launching system with more than one barrel, arranged so as to be able to fire in relatively quick succession, without the need to reload. Most commonly fitted to a self-propelled vehicle or a towed trailer. Sometimes referred to as a ‘multiple launch rocket system’ (MLRS), however this is the name of a specific U.S.-made weapon system.
A complete device, (e.g. missile, shell, mine, demolition store etc.) charged with explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics, initiating compositions or nuclear, biological or chemical material, for use in connection with offence, or defence, or training, or non-operational purposes, including those parts of weapon systems containing explosives. Synonymous with Ammunition. Note: Term ‘ammunition’ includes; shells, bullets, fuses and powder; whereas ‘munition’ carries a broader reference to, artillery guns, missiles, and bombs. ‘Munitions’ (plural) can be ‘weapons used in combat’.
The specific types of ammunition. A means of categorising ammunition or munitions by their function (e.g. anti-tank ammunition or riot control ammunition).
The total explosives content present in a container, ammunition, building etc., unless it has been determined that the effective quantity is significantly different from the actual quantity. It does not include such substances as white phosphorus, war gas or smoke and incendiary compositions unless these substances contribute significantly to the dominant hazard of the Hazard Division concerned. Also known as Net Explosive Content (NEC), Net Explosive Mass (NEM) or Net Explosive Weight (NEW). Can also be referred to as Equivalent Net Explosive Quantity (ENEQ), where TNT equivalence is used.
To alter the state of a piece of ammunition or munition so that it cannot explode, e.g. by replacing safety devices such as pins or rods into an explosive item to prevent the fuze or igniter from functioning, or by disrupting the explosive train.
The pressure above atmospheric pressure resulting from the blast wave of an explosion. It is referred to as ‘positive’ when it exceeds atmospheric pressure and ‘negative’ when during the passage of the wave the resulting pressures are less than the atmospheric pressure.
The failure of ammunition or any of its constituent parts, including the explosives, to function as designed.
A flare/smoke-producing incendiary composition, or smoke-screening agent, made from a common allotrope of the chemical element phosphorus.
A specially designed structure or consecrated space where individuals or groups of people perform religious acts.
Area likely to contain concentrations of civilians. The term ’concentrations of civilians‘ is defined in Protocol III to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons as any concentration of civilians, be it permanent or temporary, such as in inhabited parts of cities, or inhabited towns or villages, or as in camps or columns of refugees or evacuees, or groups of nomads. NOTE: Populated areas are NOT synonymous with “urban”.
The number of human inhabitants of an area per square kilometre (km2).
Precautions in attack (art 57): verify that targets are military objectives and not subject to special protection; choose means and methods of warfare to avoid and minimise loss of civilian life and injury and damage to civilian objects; refrain from launching a disproportionate attack; cancel or suspend an attack if the target is not a military objective or subject to special protection; provide effective advance warnings whenever possible; and choose the military objective expected to cause least danger to civilians and civilian objects.
Precautions against the effects of attack (Art 58): seek to remove the civilians and civilian objects from the vicinity of military objectives; avoid locating weapons, troops or other military objectives within or near densely populated areas; and take other precautions to protect the civilians and civilian objects against dangers resulting from military operations.
Measures taken in advance to prevent the occurrence of collateral damage or to mitigate their effects.
An explosive substance, which is sensitive to spark, friction, impact or flame, and is capable of promoting initiation in an unconfined state. Generally, primary explosives are synonymous with initiating explosives.
The increase or spread of weapons and ammunition to users.
The functional testing and assessment of an explosive to ascertain its performance.
A substance on its own or in a mixture with other substances that can be used for the chemical generation of gases at the controlled rates required for propulsive purposes.
A substance added to single or double base propellants to retard decomposition.
A substance capable of spontaneous ignition when exposed to air, such as white phosphorous.
A substance or mixture of substances which, when ignited, undergo an energetic chemical reaction at a controlled rate intended to produce effects such as light, smoke, sound or flame.
A designated area for recreational use.
Reverberating Effects of Explosive Force (REEF) is interchangeable with Tertiary Explosive Weapon Effects.
Combination of the probability of occurrence of harm and the severity of that harm.
Systematic use of available information to identify hazards and to estimate the risk.
A missile whose motion is due to reaction propulsion and whose flight path cannot be controlled during flight.
Article consisting of a solid or liquid fuel contained in a cylinder fitted with one or more nozzles. They are designed to propel a rocket or a guided missile.
A complete assembly of a projectile (with or without fuze), the propelling charge in a cartridge case and the means of igniting the propelling charge.
The absence of risk. Normally the term ‘tolerable risk’ is more appropriate and accurate.
For the purposes of CEW, salvo refers to an explosive weapon attack of between 2 and 9 projectiles of the same type in one (target) area by at least two weapons (one round each).
Fragmentation, which in an explosive event, did not originate from the munition.
Spalling occurs by the transmission of a shock wave through material that creates high-speed particles from the opposite face of that material without breaching it.
Instructions that define the preferred or currently established method of conducting an operational task or activity. Their purpose is to promote recognisable and measurable degrees of discipline, uniformity, consistency and commonality within an organisation, with the aim of improving operational effectiveness and safety. SOPs should reflect local requirements and circumstances.
Any munition that, to perform its tasks, separates from a parent munition (e.g. cluster munitions).
A location where natural resources, raw materials, components and finished products are gathered prior to being distributed to customer outlets or customers.
A system of organisations, people, activities, information and resources involved in moving a product or service from producer to customer.
A gun fitted to a battle tank as its primary armament. In modern usage, typically of 75 mm to 155 mm in calibre, featuring an advanced stabilisation system and capable of firing a variety of different munitions. Often, but not always, fitted with an autoloader.
The object of a particular action, for example a geographic area, a complex, an installation, a force, equipment, an individual, a group or system planned for capture, exploitation, neutralization or destruction by military forces.
The target plus the surrounding area within range of a weapon’s primary and secondary explosive effects.
The process of selecting and prioritising targets and matching the appropriate response to them, taking into account operational requirements and capabilities.
Risk, which is accepted in a given context based on the current values of society.
A town is a human settlement generally larger than a village but smaller than a city. What constitutes a town varies considerably in parts of the world and is mainly dictated by the population density, occupied geographical area and economical functions within, as well as administrative importance to the host state. A town has defined boundaries and local governance, with its own business or shopping area. Refer to City, Town, Village, Hamlet.
A transport hub (also interchange) is a place where passengers and cargo are exchanged between vehicles or between transport modes. Public transport hubs include train stations, rapid transit stations, bus and tram stops, airports and ferry terminals.
A division of ammunition in accordance with its general design, e.g. AP, SAP, Nose Ejection.
EO that has been primed, fuzed, armed or otherwise prepared for use or used. It may have been fired, dropped, launched or projected yet remains unexploded either through malfunction or design or for any other reason.
Human settlement. Usually small and consisting of a few dwellings and only the most basic of infrastructures. In a more populated region can refer to a settlement of up to 5000 people and have basic necessities i.e. shops, church, meeting place etc. Refer to City, Town, Village, Hamlet.
Building deemed to be vulnerable by nature of its construction or function.
Anything used, designed or intended for use in causing death or injury, or for the purposes of threatening or intimidating any person.
An explosive weapon capable of producing primary and secondary effects well beyond the point of initiation, including by means of the large destructive radius of the individual munition(s) used, inaccuracy of the delivery system or munition, the use of multiple munitions, or a combination of these factors.